What is Depression?

Depression is a debilitating condition characterized by low self-esteem, less energy, and loss of interest in doing anything enjoyable. The daily impact on one’s life is often catastrophic, leading to poor work performance, difficult interpersonal relationships, and can ultimately progress to substance abuse and pervasive suicidal thoughts.

The National Institute of Mental Health (IMH) estimates that in the United States, 16 million adults had at least one major depressive episode in 2012. That’s 7% of the US population. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression, making it the leading cause of disability.

What causes Depression?

Depression is caused by chemical imbalances in the brain. Chemicals called neurotransmitters send messages through your brain and body. Certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate regulate your mood. When you don’t have enough of these chemicals in your brain or if the neurotransmitters don’t function properly, you can develop depression. Your risk of developing depression is higher if you have a family history of the condition or if you’ve been exposed to environmental factors like abuse, neglect, violence, or poverty.


Most antidepressants work by increasing the production of serotonin, which eventually stimulates glutamate production and functionality. Unfortunately the effectiveness of these treatments varies greatly by patient and can take weeks or months to begin showing results. Tragically one third of those diagnosed with this illness are unresponsive to traditional treatment methods.

This is what makes Ketamine such a revolutionary discovery. Unlike conventional medications Ketamine acts immediately, and has been proven effective at treating even the most severe cases.

Ketamine acts by binding to multiple receptors in the central nervous system, inhibiting some and activating others, and stimulating immediate glutamate activity. This often provides relief within an hour after an infusion. As many as 75%-80% of patients reported significant improvement.

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Clinical Research - Ketamine & Depression

Gerard Sanacora, MD, PhD; Mark A. Frye, MD; William McDonald, MD; Sanjay J. Mathew, MD; Mason S. Turner, MD; Alan F. Schatzberg, MD; Paul Summergrad, MD; Charles B. Nemeroff,MD, PhD; for the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Council of Research Task Force on Novel Biomarkers and Treatments >> READ FULL ARTICLE

 Mandy Oaklander >> READ FULL ARTICLE

Kaitlin E. DeWilde, Cara F. Levitch, James W. Murrough, Sanjay J. Mathew, and Dan V. Iosifescu >> READ FULL ARTICLE

Caoimhe M. Coyle and Keith R. Laws >> READ FULL ARTICLE

 Girish Banwari, Prutha Desai, Prahlad Patidar >> READ FULL ARTICLE

Jonathan S. Dowben, MD, Joan S. Grant, DSN, RN, and Norman L. Keltner, EdD, APRN >> READ FULL ARTICLE

 Giacomo Salvadore & Jaskaran B. Singh >> READ FULL ARTICLE

Sanjay J. Mathew, Asim Shah, Kyle Lapidus, Crystal Clark, Noor Jarun, Britta Ostermeyer, and James W. Murrough

Michele G. Sullivan >> READ FULL ARTICLE



Berman RM, Cappiello A, Anand A, Oren DA, Heninger GR, Charney DS, Krystal JH >> READ FULL ARTICLE